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Tudo sobre a cirurgia refrativa

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A cirurgia refrativa é um procedimento nos olhos para corrigir erros refrativos, como miopia, astigmatismo, hipermetropia e presbiopia. A cirurgia é feita a laser, por meio de um equipamento que usa luz ultravioleta, chamado Excimer Laser.

Com o avanço da tecnologia e da medicina, hoje em dia existem diversos tipos de procedimentos para a realização da cirurgia refrativa, conheça um pouco sobre esses procedimentos:

  1. LASIK, sigla de Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis:

É um dos procedimentos mais rápidos da cirurgia refrativa. Com a técnica LASIK, o laser cria um flap no epitélio da córnea primeiramente. Logo em seguida, é feita a aplicação em uma camada mais interna da córnea. Por fim, há o reposicionamento do flap.

  1. PRK, também conhecida como Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa:

Neste procedimento, procede-se à raspagem do epitélio para que o laser seja aplicado. No final do procedimento há a aplicação de uma lente de contato na superfície da córnea. Esta lente de contato será responsável por cicatrizar.

  1. INTRALASE

Outro procedimento de cirurgia refrativa, o INTRALASE é uma técnica parecida com a LASIK.

 

Outras informações sobre a cirurgia refrativa

Existem muitas dúvidas sobre a cirurgia refrativa e provavelmente você também gostaria de mais informações sobre o procedimento. Confira agora as principais informações sobre a cirurgia refrativa e não esqueça de procurar o seu oftalmologista para saber mais.

Quem pode fazer a cirurgia?

Geralmente o paciente precisa ter acima de 21 anos e não ter doenças oculares. Somente através de exames mais profundos é que será identificada a possibilidade de se proceder á cirurgia refrativa.

Somente o oftalmologista poderá indicar os exames necessários, por isso, é necessário que o paciente marque uma consulta para que o médico identifique suas possibilidades e peça os exames para investigação.

A cirurgia não é indicada para gestantes.

Quais são os riscos da cirurgia refrativa?

Por ser um procedimento a laser, os riscos do procedimento são mínimos e a preocupação maior é com o pós-operatório. Mas por se tratar de um procedimento cirúrgico possui riscos, mesmo que sejam raros.

A cirurgia refrativa é indolor e geralmente é bem rápida. É comum que os pacientes sintam um leve desconforto após a cirurgia, como se tivessem areia nos olhos.

Qual o tempo de recuperação?

Usualmente, o tempo de recuperação é bem rápido, mas isso depende do tipo de técnica. É possível que o paciente volte às suas atividades em poucos dias, mas alguns cuidados são necessários por algum tempo. É muito importante seguir todas as orientações do médico no pós-operatório.

Mais informações sobre o procedimento da cirurgia refrativa

Agora que você já conhece as principais informações sobre a cirurgia refrativa, talvez esteja se perguntando sobre quando será possível enxergar melhor, isto é, os efeitos a que o procedimento se propôs.

O melhor de tudo é que o efeito é sentido logo depois do procedimento, mas são necessárias duas ou três semanas para que sua visão fique melhor e tenha o efeito por completo.

Outra questão muito questionada pelos pacientes e que, provavelmente seja a sua também, é se é possível fazer a operação nos dois olhos. A boa notícia é que sim, você pode operar os dois olhos ao mesmo tempo, mas é claro que isso vai depender da indicação do seu médico.

O oftalmologista é quem vai indicar se a operação dos dois olhos é indicada para o seu caso.

Assim como é possível operar os dois olhos, é possível corrigir mais de um erro refrativo em uma cirurgia e isso, claro, é fantástico!

Possibilidades de retorno do grau

A cirurgia refrativa é um procedimento seguro e muito eficaz, então é muito provável que o problema não volte nunca mais, porém, existem pequenas chances, mas isso depende de diversas variáveis, como o seu histórico ocular.

 

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Como economizei na compra do brinco Ear Jacket

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O Ear Jacket é um brinco inventado por uma estilista francesa e que chegou com tudo ao Brasil, devido a sua enorme elegância e também ao fato de conseguir combinar com quase qualquer tipo de roupa, deixando a vida da mulher muito mais prática e rápida no seu dia a dia.

Por conta disso, esse tipo de semi joia caiu logo no gosta da brasileira, a qual é uma das principais compradores do Ear Jacket em todo o mundo e faz com que esse brinco tenha uma verdadeira fascinação em todo o país.

Assim, para você que quer ficar na moda, bem vestida e elegante usando o brinco Ear Jacket, mas, ao mesmo tempo não deseja gastar muito dinheiro adquirindo esse item, já que a crise no Brasil está fazendo muita gente ficar de cabelo em pé, não precisa se preocupar.

Esse texto vai dar as orientações que se precisa para gastar quase nada na aquisição do seu brinco Ear Jacket e fazer com que você fique linda em um piscar de olhos. Venha comigo e aprenda tudo sobre esse assunto.

Visite a várias lojas

Não tem muito segredo, quem deseja economizar na compra de qualquer tipo de produto, deve ter como hábito bater perna e visitar as mais diversas lojas de joias e semi joias da sua região.

Desse modo, você sempre vai encontrar algum tipo de promoção que se encaixe naquilo que você necessita e com isso vai conseguir adquirir o seu brinco Ear Jacket por um preço que caiba em seu orçamento doméstico.

Faça indagações aos seus conhecidos

Perguntar não custa nada, por isso, aproveite uma festa com muitas das suas colegas e pergunte onde elas compraram esses brinco Ear Jacket e o quanto elas pagaram nessas semi joias.

Desse modo, você vai ter um perfil completo das lojas mais próximas as sua casa, as quais tenham a venda do brinco Ear Jacket com uma qualidade única e também com um preço que caiba no seu bolso e não faça com que se contraia dividas apenas para adquirir esse lindo objeto.

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Entupimento de ralos, pias, esgoto? Desentupidora Rj

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Pode ter certeza: um dia você precisará dos serviços de uma desentupidora rj. Pode não parecer, mas casos de entupimento (seja de esgoto, pia, etc.) ocorrem diariamente na casa de milhões de brasileiros.

Logo, não teria porque ser diferente no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Corriqueiramente existem pessoas procurando por serviços de desentupidora RJ a fim de solucionar os mais diversos tipos de obstruções.

Sim, pois quando se fala em desentupidora, normalmente vem à mente serviços destinados a esgoto. De fato, o entupimento de esgoto realmente é o tipo principal. Mas, infelizmente, não é único.

Entupimentos de vasos sanitários, pias, ralos são corriqueiros no dia a dia. Sabe aquele tufo de cabelo que na hora do banho desce pelo ralo? Uma hora isso acumula e vira uma bola de neve (no caso, bola de cabelo mesmo).

Além disso, todo mundo sabe que a pia de cozinha é multitarefa. Nela é normal lavar louça, as panelas, preparar alimentos, entre outras coisas. E, mesmo que você tenha todo o cuidado do mundo para evitar que restos de alimentos caiam pelo ralo, os óleos e gorduras provenientes dos objetos lavados acabam ocasionando o entupimento. Até a borra de café pode causar tais dores de cabeça.

Quando isso acontece, tentar solucionar o problema por conta própria não é a melhor escolha. Acionar uma desentupidora é essencial, independente do horário que isso ocorra, pois existem empresas que funcionam 24 horas.

Muitas vezes surgem vazamentos que ninguém sabe de onde vem. E isso pode ser causado por entupimento. Nesses casos, a ajuda profissional é extremamente importante, para que faça uma analise do caso e dê uma solução. Com essa análise, impede-se que quebrem diversas áreas a procura do causados do problema. Uma companhia de desentupidora rj profissional não irá destruir a sua casa (e acabar causando mais dores de cabeça).

Quando qualquer tipo de entupimento ocorrer, contatar uma desentupidora o mais rápido possível é o melhor a se fazer para evitar danos maiores.

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Semi Joias – Amazing list

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A fabricação de produtos de qualidade que não sejam joias no mundo dos adereços está cada vez maior.

Por conta do alto custo de se adquirir uma joia, muitas pessoas preferem apostar em uma boa semi joia, para usar em situações até mesmo formais, como formaturas e casamentos, já que esses itens possuem uma qualidade de confecção, a qual, é muito parecida com joias verdadeiras.

Assim, existe um novo segmento nesse mercado, que se trata das Semi joias de luxo, as quais, são mais baratas que as joias tradicionais, entretendo, bem mais caras do que bijuterias, se encaixando em uma categoria intermediária, para quem não pode arcar com os custos que as joias novas tem.

Por isso, para quem deseja adquirir Semi joias de luxo de qualidade e com bom preço, esse artigo vai passar para vocês os melhores locais para se comprar esses itens, sem correr o risco de passar por uma fraude ou ainda falsificação desses objetos. Venha comigo e conheça tudo sobre esse assunto.

Aurole

Um primeiro local para comprar as suas Semi joias de luxo para conseguir ficar bem arrumada, sem precisar gastar muito dinheiro com isso é o Aurole, já que nesse site, você vai encontrar uma série de Semi joias de luxo, com uma qualidade de confecção única, trabalhadas com o melhor material disponível no mercado e também contando com uma confecção de qualidade.

Além disso, você tem formas de pagamentos, as quais, farão com que essa compra não pese em seu orçamento, podendo parcelar em várias vezes, sem juros e sem cobranças adicionais.

Desse modo, você vai conseguir ficar muito bonita para o seu próximo evento, sem ter que se endividar muito para isso, já que essas Semi joias de luxo são de bastante qualidade e vão te surpreender por sua beleza e sofisticação.

Para acessar o site da Aurole e ver toda a coleção que essa marca tem, basta acessar o link e depois visitar a página, com suas coleções inteiras de Semi joias de luxo de qualidade e também de luxo, não devendo em nada para lojas de joias.

 

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Baobab Tree — Adansonia Gregorii

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There are millions of types of trees all around the world; however none are like the deciduous trees of Madagascar and Australia. Only in these areas does such a unique tree grow.

Adansonia Gregorii, more commonly known as the Baobab tree, at least six out of the eight different species grow vastly in the luscious landscape of Madagascar. This tree is unlike any other. It has influenced myths and thousands of years of history, its appearance itself is unique, every part of this tree can be used.

Baobab Tree — Adansonia Gregorii

Baobab Tree — Adansonia Gregorii

Baobab trees look very differently than most trees. The trunks grow to be very thick or wide in diameter as well as grow upwards with a very large trunk. The branches expand in weird patterns in random bushy bunches. There is a legend that states that as they were planted they kept walking off so they had to be planted upside down. This is a great description in the sense that the typically do not have many branches off of them, and the branches extend almost straight up. With the bushels of leaves and fruit to look as if they are feet this old tale is quite humorous.

The most obvious use of this tree is the fruit that grow from it can be eaten. The Baobab tree dies out a little in the dry winter months then blossoms again in December through May. The native people use baobab fruit and leaves for multiple medical treatments. The fruit is said to be higher in vitamin C than a citrus fruit. The fruit of the Baobab tree is often marketed as the “super fruit”. The Baobab tree fruit is also high in antioxidants. The young sprouts of the true can be eaten like asparagus. The roots are said to be edible as well. The leaves of the Baobab Tree are used to treat asthma, diarrhea, fever, and even small pox. Wild life and livestock can feed off of the fallen flowers, leaves, and bark as well. The tree truly can provide food for all.

During dry spells the hallowed tree will serve as a water reservoir. This keeps many families provided with fresh water during the dryer seasons. The natives use glades of glass like straws to suck the reserved water from the trunk. There are also a couple famous prisoner trees. A Baobab tree hallowed out and used to hold prisoners while awaiting their sentencing. These trees can grow so large they can be used for houses or barns. They can be hallowed out and still continue to grow.

The bark of these large trees can be used in the construction of housing. Since the majority of the Madagascar population is very poor, access to these resourceful trees is a key in their survival. The natives use this tree in every way the possibly can to increase the quality of life. Right down to the seeds and the powder with in. The seeds from the tree are edible of course usually used as a coffee type drink, but the powder within them as been used as a way of painting. Sometimes the fruit themselves are carved for decoration.

The forests of Madagascar where the majority of the Baobab species grow are vast with these trees as well as animal and other plant life. A rain forest type setting with upside down trees to feed and house all that lives within it.

The Baobab tree is also a main attraction whether to Madagascar or Australia; thousands of visitors come every year to awe at the interesting view of these trees. To touch and taste the fruits it bears. The unique trees tall with bulbous trunks always have eyes gazing at them, adoring the beautiful white flowers that bloom from it. The Baobab tree is unique as the animals that live near it. Since Madagascar as lived in isolation for centuries a very high percentage of the wildlife is unique to only that area.

There is numerous reasons as to why this tree is called the magical baobab tree or the Tree of Life, for instance when this tree is cut all the way down or blown over in a storm it will simply re-sprout from the roots.

Baobab Tree — Adansonia Gregorii

During dry spells the hallowed tree will serve as a water reservoir

The fallen trees come with stories that they decompose quickly or spontaneously combust and completely burn up. This particular occurrence reassures many that this is a magical tree.

Magical or not this amazing species of tree has survived thousands of years and proves itself to be a vital resource for the native people, as well as an exquisite sight to see. Maybe the super fruit or the benefits of the Baobab leaves will work their way into modern medicine so we all can enjoy parts of the “Tree of Life”.

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World’s 5 Most Amazing Caves

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Caves are underground openings, large enough for a human to enter, they usually extend deep underground. The formation of caves is called speleogenesis. Caves are formed naturally or dug by humans. Natural Caves are formed because of number of natural factors like atmospheric influences, erosion from water, tectonic forces, microorganisms, chemical processes and pressure.

Caves are found all over the world. Many of them are yet to be discovered. For centuries caves have been used by human race as shelter and even religious sites. Today they are used for sightseeing and cave diving. Some of the caves are converted into tourist attractions where artificial lighting, floors, and food point are set for maximum enjoyment.
Here is our list of world’s 5 most amazing caves, one must visit.

Eisriesenwelt Cave
Eisriesenwelt is a German word which literally means “World of the Ice Giants”. Eisriesenwelt Cave is a natural cave made out of limestone. It is located in Werfen, Austria, about 40 km south of Salzburg. Eisriesenwelt Cave is the largest ice cave in the world. It extends more than 42 kilometers.

Eisriesenwelt cave is almost 100 million years old. Eisriesenwelt Cave was formed by River Salzach as it flowed through the mountain grinding down the passageways. The cracks and splits in the limestone developed, as the river eroded away the rocks over the passage of time. The deeper areas of the cave have very low temperature because of the cold air streaming into the cave from outside, in winters. The temperature is usually below freezing point. During spring season when the snow is melting, it trickles through the crevices in the rocks and as it reaches the low temperature area, it forms beautiful icicles.

The first kilometer of the cave is open for tourists and it is covered with ice, rest of the cave is formed of limestone. The first kilometer of the cave stays icy throughout the year. In winters, chilly winds from outside freezes the snow into ice and in summers, cold wind from the deeper and chilled part of the cave blows towards the entrance which keeps the ice from melting.

The cave was first discovered by Anton Posselt, it was then only known by locals. They used to think that it is a doorway to hell and that is why never explored it. Today Eisriesenwelt Cave is visited by over 200,000 tourists every year.

Eisriesenwelt Cave
Eisriesenwelt Cave

Reed Flute Cave
Reed Flute Cave also called ‘Ludi Yan’, is located in Northwest of Guilin in South of China. It is also referred as “the Palace of Natural Arts”. Reed flute cave is known for its artistic beauty. It is a gallery of natural sculptures made out of limestone. The cave got its name from the reeds that grew in front of it that are used to make flutes.

Reed flute cave is 240 meters long, with a different wonder of natural art at each step. It is city’s third most famous tourism spot. Tourists feast their eyes with different kind of splendid stalactites, stalagmites and stone pillars as they walk through u-shaped route of the cave. The beauty of the cave is enhanced by artificial lightings which make it look like an underground palace full of expensive art pieces.

Reed Flute Cave
Reed Flute Cave

Cave of the Giant Crystals
Cave of the Crystals is located in Mexico. It is known for its extraordinary crystals. It is located 1000 feet down the “Naica Mine”. The mine was discovered in 1794. The mine consists of lead, zinc and silver. Large amount of crystals has been found within the cave with sizes up to 4 feet in diameter and 50 feet in length. Another chamber of the Naica mine called “The cave of Swords” , located 400 feet under themine, consists of similar crystals.

From the discovery till 1900 the main interest was silver and gold. But as zinc and lead became more valuable, large scale mining began.

Cave of the Giant Crystals
Cave of the Giant Crystals

Puerto Princesa Underground River
Puerto Princesa Underground River is located near the city of Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines. Puerto Princesa Underground River is the most noteworthy area of Philippines. It has spectacular limestone which comprises of Underground River that is 8.2 kilometers long. The river flows directly into the ocean and lower half of the river is salty and influenced by tide. Puerto Princesa Underground River is the largest navigable underground river in the world. It is very easy and convenient to experience.

It is also said to be one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

Puerto Princesa Underground River
Puerto Princesa Underground River

Waitomo Caves
Waitomo Caves are located in North Island of New Zealand. The word Waitomo means “water passing through a hole”. These caves are nearly two million years old. The Waitomo caves are huge tourist attraction since 1900. The caves are known for their stalactite and stalagmite displays, and for the presence of glowworms. Glowworms are luminescent beetles.

Waitomo Caves
Waitomo Caves

These caves are not only wonderful but also mysterious in their own ways. One would miss a huge part of the world not visiting them.

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7 Amazing Species Of Flower Praying Mantises

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Flower mantises are species of flower praying mantis. They are called Praying mantises because of their ‘prayer-like’ posture. They mimic the appearance of the flowers that they hide in. Their legs, wings and other body parts often look like petals that helps them blending in the flower they live in.

Orchid Mantis (Hymenopus coronatus)

Orchid Mantis

Orchid Mantis

Orchid Mantis scientifically called Hymenopus coronatus, is a beautiful pink and white praying mantis. It has lobes on its legs that look like flower petals. Even though orchid mantis does not live on orchids, it does look extraordinarily like a flower. This species is very widely held because of its beautiful bright colors and amazing camouflage. In the wild Orchid Mantis is found in Malaysia.

This species has lobes on its legs that mimic flower petals. Its natural environment consists of white and pink flowers in wilds and small trees. In this way the mantis can remain unnoticed for predators such as birds and at the same time can catch pollinating insects that are attracted to the flowers. The orchid mantis is white with soft or bright pink accents. One mantis can change color in a matter of days, depending on their environment like humidity and light conditions.

Spiny flower mantis (Pseudocreobotra wahlbergii)

Spiny Flower Mantis

Spiny Flower Mantis

Spiny Flower Mantis has its brilliant colors and camouflaging adornments but this tiny flower like creature is a skillful predator with lightning-fast reflexes. Spiny Flower Mantis is a mostly inactive hunter, it prefers snatching food, pollinating insects, directly from the air rather than searching for the prey. It is only 3 to 5 cm long. Adults of the species have the golden spiral on their outermost wings which differentiates them from other species of flower mantises. When vulnerable, the Spiny Flower Mantis rears up and outspread these wings that give it a much more frightening creature with large golden eyes. Mating can be tricky for male mantises, they have to stay alert or they might end up becoming the female’s next meal. It is contradictory because researchers say that they aren’t averse to feasting on their own kind when hungry or overcrowded.

Giant devil’s flower mantis (Idolomantis diabolica)

Giant Devil's Flower Mantis

Giant Devil’s Flower Mantis

The Idolomantis Diabolica is also known as the “King of all mantises” for its scary looks. It is green and brown in color. It tops other flower praying mantises species because of its beauty and size. It is one of the largest species of praying mantis that mimics flowers.

It is mostly found in Tanzania. The giant devil’s flower mantis is one of the most bizarre looking of all the other species of mantises. It is the master of camouflage, which makes it easy for him to catch its prey passing by while he lies in wait.

Thistle Mantis (Blepharopsis mendica)

Thistle Mantis

Thistle Mantis

The Thistle Mantis scientifically called Blepharopsis mendica is a beautiful species of praying mantis. It is native from North Africa and South East Asia. This species is sometimes also referred as Lesser Devil’s Flower Mantis. Thistle mantis is 5 to 6cm long with a little variation depending upon what sex it is.

The thistle mantis is creamy-white to beige in color. Adults have light green stripes and light green veins on the wings. The front legs are orange from inside with blue and white spots on them. These colors are visible when it rears up to scare the predators. It keeps its forearms under a small pointed sheet on its back. The males’ wings reach a little bit over the end of the abdomen and they have feathered antennae. The females’ wings extend to just the end of the abdomen, making them bulkier. Females have thin antennae.

Nigerian flower mantis (Chloroharpax modesta)

Nigerian Flower Mantis

Nigerian Flower Mantis

Nigerian flower mantis is a small species of flower praying mantises. It is native from West Africa. This tiny West African mantis despite of its small size attacks a prey larger then itself and hunts it down.

Unlike most flower mantis, they have beautiful round eyes with blue shade. They are green in color. Adult female has yellow eye-like spots on the wings.

Indian flower mantis (Creobroter pictipennis)

Indian Flower Mantis

Indian Flower Mantis

The Indian Flower Mantis scientifically known as Creobroter pictipennis is another species in the flower mantis group. Jeweled flower mantis is very similar to Indian Flower Mantis, but the two species have different patterns on their wings.

The adult males are 3cm long and slender with wings longer than their abdomen. The adult females are 4cm long and broader and bulkier than males. Females’ wings are just a little bit shorter than their abdomen. Indian Flower Mantis has a creamy-white color. Its back has green and brown blots. Its legs are stripped brown and green. Adult mantises have green wings and yellow eye patch that helps scares off the predators.

Jeweled flower mantis (Creobroter gemmatus)

Jeweled Flower Mantis

Jeweled Flower Mantis

As mentioned above the jeweled flower mantis is similar to the Indian flower mantis, but the pattern on the wings is different. The jeweled flower mantis is an Asian species. It is known to be hanging upside down, waiting to attack its prey as it passes by.

Abdomen of the species is colored green and white. It is usually 4cm long. Females may be slightly larger in size. Their dull color helps them blend in the flora they live in.

20 praying mantis species are found in United States only. European and Chinese versions of them are also discovered. These mantises range in color and sizes according to the floras they inhabit. Praying mantises are one of the most interesting species of insects that master camouflage. Despite of their odd looks they are beautiful to watch even when they are doing nothing. If you catch sight of a praying mantis hunting its prey, it is a memorable one.

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5 Of the Most Amazing People with Disability

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Disability is not inability

Disability is not inability

The people discussed in this article are those brave and heroic people who have achieved a lot of success in their lives despite of all the hindrances they faced being physically disabled.

These valiant people have amazed the world with their courage, determination, strength and amazing will. These people have overcome all the obstacles they faced and never let their disabilities come in their path of glory. With their determination these extraordinary individuals have made a difference in the lives of a lot of people.

Some of such personalities who have touched the world with their remarkable stories and amazing talent are given below:

ALBERT EINSTEIN (MARCH 14, 1879 – APRIL 18, 1955)

Disability: Dyslexia

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein

When talking about the famous disabled people the first name that comes to the mind is that of the great Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein who is the greatest scientist of the twentieth century and the greatest physicist of all time had a learning disability in the early parts of his life. Till the age of three he could not speak and was severely dyslexic and autistic.

As he grew older he started to focus on the only thing he was exceptional at and that was mathematics. Soon he fought his disability and entered into the world of theoretical physics where he changed the face of physics and science forever. His theory of relativity is said to be the most revolutionary theory of physics. He won a Nobel Prize for his photoelectric effect theory in 1921.

HELEN ADAM KELLER (JUNE 27, 1880 – JUNE 1, 1968)

Disability: Blind and Deaf

Helen Keller

H. A. Keller

Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist and lecturer. She was the first deaf and blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. The story of how Keller’s teacher, Annie Sullivan, broke through the isolation imposed by a near complete lack of language, allowing the girl to blossom as she learned to communicate, has become known worldwide through the dramatic depictions of the play and film The Miracle Worker. Sullivan taught Helen to communicate by spelling words into her hand, beginning with d-o-l-l for the doll that she had brought her as a present.

A prolific author, Keller was well traveled and was outspoken in her opposition to war. She campaigned for women’s suffrage, workers’ rights, and socialism, as well as many other progressive causes. In 1920, she helped to found the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Keller and Sullivan traveled to over 39 countries, making several trips to Japan and becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Keller met every US President from Grover Cleveland to Lyndon B. Johnson and was friends with many famous figures, including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin, and Mark Twain.

STEPHEN HAWKING (JANUARY 8, 1942)

Disability: Motor Neuron disease or a variant of ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking is perhaps the world’s most famous living physicist. A specialist in cosmology and quantum gravity and a devotee of black holes, his work has probed the origins of the cosmos, the nature of time and the universe’s ultimate fate — earning him accolades including induction into the Order of the British Empire. To the public, he’s best known as an author of bestsellers such as The Universe in a Nutshell and A Brief History of Time, which have brought an appreciation of theoretical physics to millions.

Though the motor neuron disorder ALS has confined Hawking to a wheelchair, it hasn’t stopped him from lecturing widely, making appearances on television shows such as Star Trek: The Next Generation and The Simpsons — and planning a trip into orbit with Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic. (He recently experienced weightlessness aboard Zero Gravity Corporation’s “Vomit Comet.”) A true academic celebrity, he uses his public appearances to raise awareness about potential global disasters — such as global warming — and to speak out for the future of humanity: “Getting a portion of the human race permanently off the planet is imperative for our future as a species,” he says.

Hawking serves as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, where he continues to contribute to both high-level physics and the popular understanding of our universe.

“We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star. But we can understand the Universe. That makes us something very special.” — Stephen Hawking.

LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (DECEMBER 16, 1770 – MARCH 26, 1827)

Disability: Deaf

Ludwig Van Beethoven

Ludwig Van Beethoven

Beethoven grew up in Bonn, Germany in a very unhappy home. He was forced to practice the piano by his father, an abusive alcoholic who would punish him mercilessly when he made mistakes. By the time he was twelve, he was earning a living for his family by playing organ and composing. He was eventually known as the greatest pianist of his time. One of Beethoven’s favorite foods was macaroni and cheese. He also loved strong coffee – exactly 60 coffee beans to one cup.

Beethoven never married even though he proposed to plenty of women who rejected him (he wasn’t very attractive and he had a rather nasty temper). Yet in spite of his unpleasant personality, Beethoven is best defined by his music.

His first two symphonies are very much in the same style and form as those of composers that came before him, most notably Franz Joseph Haydn, his teacher. But Beethoven’s writing–as seen in his third symphony–had developed beyond that of his teacher. Named Eroica, his Third Symphony was so different from the ones that had come before that it changed music forever. Its originality and innovation even inspired others to change the way that they composed. It was originally dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte. But when Beethoven heard that Napoleon had proclaimed himself Emperor, he went into a rage and destroyed the title page.

Although Beethoven gradually lost his hearing, he continued composing. He composed many of the most famous musical works of all time, such as his Ninth Symphony, after he had become totally deaf.

MARLA RUNYAN (JANUARY 4, 1969)

Disability: Blind

Marla Runyan

Marla Runyan

One of the women representing the Unites States in the 1500 meter track event at the 2000 Olympics was Marla Runyan. The American runner finished seventh in her preliminary heat and rose to sixth in the semifinals to qualify for the finals. During the final race, Marla lost track of the major competitors. She finished in eighth position, 3.20 seconds behind the gold medal winner. In 1996, Marla set several track and field records at the Paralympics in Atlanta, Georgia. Following that success, Marla wanted to compete in the 2000 Olympics in Sydney — even though she is legally blind. The 31-year-old runner has been diagnosed with Stargardt disease. This is a condition that leaves her with a limited ability to see what is in front of her. In Sydney, Marla became the first legally blind athlete to compete in an Olympics.

 

It is a great achievement for any man to perform extraordinary acts – but it is even more so when this is done despite a terrible disability.

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10 Amazing Transparent Animals

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There are ghosts currently wandering the planet, but they aren’t the undead apparitions of your imagination.

Transparent animals — creatures with transparent, glass-like skin — can be found lurking in abundance in ecosystems around the globe. These fascinating, verging-on-invisible organisms are the tangible ghosts of the real world. Here is our list of world’s most amazing transparent animals:

1. Ghost (Glass) Shrimp

The official common name for this species is the Grass Shrimp and its scientific name is Palaemonetes paludosus. It has many other names including Ghost Shrimp, Glass Shrimp, Freshwater River Shrimp and others. The semi-translucent shells of these minuscule crustaceans make them nearly as transparent as the glass aquariums in which they are sometimes kept. In the wild, different species can be found in rivers and lakes throughout the world. The animal is so clear in appearance that it only has color of the food it has eaten, which is typically plant-based and, therefore, usually green. Their feeding habit makes them great cleaners if kept in an aquarium. Remember that this is a natural food source in the wild so any predatory fish will definitely devour them fast.

Ghost (Glass) Shrimp

Ghost (Glass) Shrimp

Glasswing Butterfly

Glasswing Butterfly

2. Glasswing Butterfly
The common English name for this remarkable butterfly is glasswing, which in itself speaks volumes about the appearance of this small but unusual insect. However, it takes the romance languages to step in and give the butterfly the name which, for many, suits it best. The Spanish name for the glasswing is ‘espejitos’. Literally translated, this means little mirrors.

Adult glasswing butterflies will often migrate great distances and can travel more than 12 miles a day.

3. Tortoise Shell Beetle
This remarkable beetle is not completely transparent, but it does have a carapace that is nearly invisible. The tortoise shell beetle is a fraud. At least, that’s how it presents itself in the wild, where it boasts beautiful colors but ones laid just below a transparent shell. The beetle’s clear carapace aims to fool potential threats while revealing markings on its back that act as a warning to predators.

Tortoise beetles come in many different varieties, and the design under their clear shells can be distinct and beautiful.

Tortoise Shell Beetle

Tortoise Shell Beetle

Barreleye a.k.a Spook Fish

Barreleye a.k.a Spook Fish

4. Barreleye a.k.a Spook Fish
These deep-sea fishes are found in water as deep as 3330 ft (1015 m). The barreleye has a completely transparent head. The purpose of the transparent head is that its eyes, which are located inside the head, can look straight up as it swims, presumably so that it can detect the silhouettes of available prey. Its eyes can rotate within the socket so that the fish can look in multiple directions, which would be impossible if not for the transparent cranium.

5. Transparent Sea Cucumber
Census of Marine Life researchers discovered this unusual transparent sea cucumber (Enypniastes sp.) in the Gulf of Mexico. When encountered, this cucumber was creeping forward on its many tentacles at about 2 centimeters per minute while sweeping detritus-rich sediment into its mouth.

Transparent Sea Cucumber

Transparent Sea Cucumber

Salp

Salp

6. Salp
Many people have never heard of salps until they come across them when they are in one of many oceans around the world. A salp is an unusual looking creature that is a free floating tunicate and is barrel shaped. The creature is able to move by pumping water through its body, which is jelly like. When the salp pumps the water through its body it strains it and feeds on the phytoplankton that is in the water. These tunicates are quite interesting to look at because of the simple yet complex way that they move through the water and feed at the same time.

7. Glass Frog
The glass frog is one of those bizarre and fascinating creatures in this world. Upon looking down at this amphibian, the first thing you might notice is its soft lime-green color. But if you were to turn it over, a quick glance at its abdomen would catch your attention. The glass frog’s stomach is completely transparent! Close examination of this unique creature reveals a fully visible system of organs, including the heart, liver, and full intestinal tract. Scientists believe that earlier frogs of this species evolved to have this trait for camouflage; while perched on a leaf or branch, they are extremely difficult to spot from a distance.

Found in the jungles of Central and South America, these animals are mostly arboreal, meaning they live primarily in trees.

Glass Frog

Glass Frog

Jellyfish

Jellyfish

8. Jellyfish
Perhaps the most well-known types of transparent creatures are jellyfish. Many of the free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria are transparent, a trait that makes them occasionally hazardous because of their sometimes deadly stings, which can surprise swimmers.
Another fascinating fact about jellyfish is that they don’t have any brain, heart, or bones. Some jellyfish have ways of detecting obstacles that can be compared to sight but they don’t have real eyes. It is a mystery how they can process the information from their “sight” since they doesn’t have any brain. They react directly on food and danger stimuli via nerve impulses without having any brain to process the impulses. Another fact about jellyfish and their bodies is that the body consists of over 95% water. Their translucent bodies also make them among the most elegant and beautiful of the ocean’s creatures.

9. Glass Squid
It’s a barrel-shaped squid whose rough surface is covered with star-shaped protuberances. It has fourteen luminous spots around its large eyes, which are actually organs called photophores. Transparency keeps them hidden from predators, since they spend much of their lives in partially sunlit shallow waters. This species keeps a special fluid, lighter than salt water, in its rounded body to aid buoyancy. Since the digestive gland can still be seen through the transparent skin, it is typically held in a vertical position to reduce its visibility.

Glass Squid

Glass Squid

Crocodile Icefish

Crocodile Icefish

10. Crocodile Icefish
Found in the cold waters around Antarctica and southern South America, the crocodile icefish (Channichthyidae) feed on krill, copepods, and other fish. Their blood is transparent because they have no hemoglobin and/or only defunct erythrocytes. Their metabolism relies only on the oxygen dissolved in the liquid blood, which is believed to be absorbed directly through the skin from the water.

They survive without hemoglobin thanks to the subzero temperatures of the ocean where they live, since cold water has a much higher dissolved oxygen content than warmer water.

As we have seen, the vast majority of transparent creatures live in the sea – see-through butterflies, crayfish and frogs are much less common. Will scientists pursue the lines of experimentation that brought about transparent goldfish and frogs to their logical conclusion? Time will tell… and some day we may end up questioning the old maxim, “beauty is only skin deep”.

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Pink Dolphins — Extremely Rare Species of Dolphin

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When we talk about Pink dolphins, the name is actually used for two kinds of dolphins. The Chinese White Dolphin and Amazon River Dolphin, both of them are unique and rare. Let’s find out the difference between the two and also why they are found under the same category i.e. Pink Dolphin.

Chinese White Dolphin

Chinese White Dolphin

These dolphins are not actually pink, but are white in color and have pink spots on them

Don’t get confused by the name Chinese White Dolphins because they are not just found in China’s Pearl Delta River, in Southeast Asia but also stretch from South Africa to Australia. These dolphins are not actually pink, but are white in color and have pink spots on them. These dolphins change a variety of colors before turning white. The babies are born with black skin, after some time the black color changes to grey and pink spots start to appear. As they grow old, the grey color fades into white color. This is the reason why they are known as Chinese White Dolphins and the pink spots on their body puts them under the category of Pink Dolphins.

The scientific name for the Chinese white dolphin is Sousa chinensis chinensis and it is also known as Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin. Scientists say that it belongs to the humpback dolphin species out of the 80 species of cetaceans existing. Many people confuse this dolphin with albino dolphins, another rare species of dolphin.

When you look at this dolphin the pink spots might appear as pigmentation to you but actually it’s not, the pink color is due to the overdeveloped blood vessels for thermoregulation. The body size ranges from 6ft 7in to 11ft 6in or 2m to 3.5 m in adults whereas, the infant dolphins are usually 1 m or 3ft 3in long. Their weight varies from 150 to 230 kg i.e. equal to 330lb to 510 lb.
The ages of these dolphins can be analyzed by counting their teeth. Usually the life span of these dolphins is up to 40 years. There are two subspecies of this dolphin the one found in Southeast Asia are pinkish white in color and have larger dorsal fin, the breeds found in South Africa and Australia have a fatty hump and relatively smaller dorsal fin, which distinguish the two species. The specie found in South Africa and Australia is also known as Sousa chinensis plumbea.

These dolphins usually breathe for 20 to 30 seconds after rising to the water surface and then dive back deeper into the water. The baby dolphins however appear on the surface of the water twice as much as the adult dolphins. The adult dolphins can stay under water for 2 to 8 minutes whereas their calves can only stay for 1 to 3 minutes.

These dolphins live a sociable life and are found in groups of 3 to 4. The females reach maturity at the age of 10 years whereas males become mature at the age of 13 years. The mating seasons begins at the end of summer and lasts till autumn, total gestation period varies from 11 to 12 months and females can give birth after every 3 years. The parents of young calves look after them till they become mature enough to find food on their own.

If you are interested in Dolphin watching boat trips are available from Honk Kong to view the white dolphins living in the Lantau, Peng Chau and Soko Islands.

The Amazon River Dolphins

Amazon River Dolphins

Amazon River Dolphin, also known as boto, boto vermelho, boto cor-de-rosa, bouto, bufeo or pink dolphin

The Amazon river dolphins are also scientifically known as Inia geoffrensis and are found in the river systems of Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. IUCN has listed these dolphins to be vulnerable species because of the excessive boat traffic, overfishing, habitat loss and pollution. It is commonly known by many names such as boto, boto vermelho, boto cor-de-rosa, bouto, bufeo and pink dolphin. These dolphins are known to grow larger in size than humans and the length of their body ranges from 5ft to 7.9ft. The females are found to be larger than males and reach to a length of 8.2 ft whereas male dolphins reach to a length of 6.6ft. The females weigh up to 98.5kg whereas males weigh around 94kg.

They can turn their heads to 180 degrees; the reason is their flexible neck that enables them to move their neck in both the directions. Usually they have 24-34 molar teeth contained in their long beaks. There are 3 subspecies recognized currently, they are:

  • g. geoffrensis breeds in the Amazon and Araguaia or Tocantins basins
  • I. g. humboldtiana is found in the Orinoco basin
  • I. boliviensis is found in Bolivian sub-basin of the Amazon

The rivers, in which these dolphins live, usually flood the surrounding marshes and forests. This becomes an ideal situation for hunting, with their flexible necks and long snouts these dolphins extract their prey from hollow logs and other hiding places. These dolphins eat crustaceans, small turtles, catfish, shrimps, piranha, crabs and fishes.

The female dolphin gives birth to the calves after a gestation period of 9 to 12 months and usually in the months of July and September. At birth these dolphins are 32 inches long and weigh around 15 pounds. Two adult dolphins stick close to the calves, usually their parents.

There is a very interesting myth associated with these amazing dolphins. They say that at night these dolphins change themselves to beautiful humans and then seduce people by showing up at the parties and also give birth to illegitimate human babies (now that sound interesting!). This shape shifting quality of these dolphins is also called, “encantado”.

Both the dolphins, Chinese White Dolphins and Amazon River Dolphins are listed on the appendix II of the Convention on CMS (Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals) because its conservation status is unfavorable. The Bolivian President, Evo Morales introduced a law for the protection of these dolphins and declared it as a, “national treasure”, in September 2012.